Friday, December 28, 2012

F-15SG (F-15E Strike Eagle Advance Variant)

F-15SG (Singapore specification) is the F-15E Strike Eagle advanced variant or world most advanced version of F-15E SE. F-15E Strike Eagles is the latest variant of F-15 production series. It's design for all weather multi-role fighter jets and air superiority fighter aircraft. It is the most capable multi-role strike fighter with unparallel range, speed & weapon loads.


In 2005, Singapore government signed a contract for 12 F-15SG with an option for additional of another 8 F-15SG (which exercised). During early tender competition, F-16E/F Block 60, JAS-39C/D Gripen, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, SU-30 fighter family, Eurofighter Typhoon, Dassault Rafale & F-15E SE was participated.
The finalist shortlisted for the new multi-role fighter  aircraft was Eurofighter Typhoon, Dassault Rafale & F-15E Strike Eagles. F-15E later chosed as the new multi-role fighter aircraft for RSAF with certain modification to suit with RSAF requirements which later known as F-15SG.
In 2007, RSAF ordered additional 4 F-15SG to make a total of 24 F-15SG.

F-15SG powered by 2 x GE F110-GE-129C afterburning turbofan engines with 29,000 lbs of thrust each engine. It's top speed is Mach 2.5 and 65,000 feets ceiling. It can carry 23,000 lbs of payload. F-15SG can bring bring medium range air-to-air missile (AIM-120C) & short range air-to-air missile (AIM-9X).
For air-to-ground / surface, it can be fitted with AIM-7 Sparrow, GPS-guided AGM-154 JDAM, JSOW, precision guided bombs, AGM-65 Maverick, SLAM-ER, Small Diameter Bombs & AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile.

F-15SG was fitted with Raytheon AN/APG-63v3 AESA radar which become the first F-15 production with AESA radar outside US. AESA radar has full capability in air-to-air and air-to-ground at longer detection range. AESA radar offers 2-3 times boost in range, true simultaneously air and surface capability, agile beam capabilities which can reduced detection range by enemy aircraft, expandability (new software modes can included high band-width communication & electronic warfare, better reliability & low maintenance cost.

For surveillance & targeting, Lockheed Martin Sniper AT (Advance Targeting) surveillance & ground targeting pod was fitted (replace LANTIRN pods system normally fitted in F-15 variants). Sniper AT also become reconnaissance platform with day / night camera which can pick out small target from far away. It also can geo-locate the targets with GPS co-ordinate & attack using GPS guided weapons. Sniper AT was fitted with FLIR for sighting, tracking & ranging of targets with enhance detection range & has laser spot tracker which allows F-15SG to deliver target with precision guided weapons for day / night.

For electronics optics (EO) suites, it consists 2 pods for precise navigation & attack where navigation pod with Terrain Following  Radar & Forward Looking Infra-red (FLIR) for low altitude navigation at night or any weather condition (possibly ATFLIR). It also can be fitted with laser range finder & laser designator  which can be integrate with laser guided weapons (AGM-65 Maverick / Paveway laser guided bomb).

In aerial flights, IRST (Infr-red Search & Tracking) can be added which allows to detect & track objects through heat emission from enemy aircraft at long distance (using passive air-to-air detection) and to launch weapons without to operate radar which decreasing probability to be detect by enemy aircraft.
Joint Helmet Mounting Cue System (JHMCS) can point head to the target & weapon to be direct at enemy aircraft (first look, first shoot) with high of boresight capabilty. It'salso can accurately direct sensor & weapons against enemy aircraft while performing high G.

TigerEyes electronic warfare suite which integrate electronic support & countermeasure system mainly consists of warning receiver, radar jammer & chaff & flare dispenser. EWS system effectively detect, identify & counter the threat. It was also reported that F-15SG was fitted with Israel electronics & self defense system.

For communication, MIDS-LVT units which includes Link-16, all the data form F-15SG can be share with other Link-16 equipped aircraft & ground radars.

Monday, December 24, 2012

F/A-18D Hornet (Boeing)

F/A-18 Hornet deployed in early 80's replacing F-4 Phantom II & A-7 Corsair II. Later it was replace A-6E Intruder in 1990's. F/A-18 Hornet involved in Operation Desert Storm performing as fighter / attack and in former Yugoslavia.

F/A-18D is a dual-seat variant of F/A-18C/D version. F/A-18C/D is the last version of F/A-18 Hornet before Super Hornet produced in early 2000. The F/A-18C Hornet is a single-seat variant.
F/A-18 has twin-engine, carrier-based supersonic and was design to suit with US Navy requirement for all-weather fighter & attack aircraft.

F/A-18D Hornet capable to perform an airstrike mission deep inside enemy territory providing itself self-defense capability & can be equipped with Beyond Visual Range (BVR) missiles. It also can perform close air support mission & fighter role for fleet air defense mission.
F/A-18D Hornet is an improved version of F/A-18B Hornet with improvement in updated missiles & jamming devices & night attack capability with more powerful F404-GE-402 (with 18,000 lbs thrust) engines & new radar, AN/APG-73.

F/A-18D Hornet is in services with USMC, US Navy, Australia, Canada, Finland, Kuwait, Malaysia, Spain & Switzerland.
It can be equipped with an air-to-air missiles (AIM-9 (M-X)) short-range air-to-air missiles & AIM-120C AMRAAM (medium range / BVR). For anti-armour missiles, AGM-65 Maverick can be equipped & AGM-88 HARM missile for anti-radiation. AGM-84D Harpoon used for anti-ship missile.
For land attack cruise missile, AGM-84H SLAM-ER (Surface Land Attack Missile Extended Range) stand-off weapons & AGM-84E SLAM can be fitted.
M61A1 20mm gun pre-installed inside the nose of Hornet.

F/A-18D Hornet can can carries up to 6,227 kg external ordnance / weapon using 9 under-wing hard-point stations with 2 x wingtip sidewinders, 2 x on-board wing station for air-to-air missiles & air-to-ground missiles.
2 in-board wing stations for fuel tanks / air-to-air weapons / air-to-ground weapons. 2 nacelles fuselage stations for AMRAAM / AIM-7 Sparrow / sensor pods & 1 centre-line station for fuel tanks / air-to-ground weapons.

For targeting, laser target designator / ranger (housed FLIR) can integrate with precision laser-guided bombs to deliver laser-guided bombs accurately. Early version of F/A-18D Hornet fitted with NAVFLIR (Navigation Forward Looking Infra-red) used for navigation in any weather condition, day or night.

Navigation & targeting pods like NITE Hawk, LITENING AT & AN/ASQ-228 ATFLIR can be fitted / added on F/A-18 Hornet which can integrate with precision-guided munitions like Paveway laser-guided bombs.

For protection system, AN/ALE 50 Towed Decoys, AN/ALQ-165 Radio Frequency Countermeasure & AN/ALR-67 Radar Warning Receiver can be fitted / added.


Length - 17.1m
Height - 4.7m
Wingspan - 12.3m
Propulsion - 2 x F404-GE-402 EPE engines
Ceiling - 15,250m
Top speed - Mach 1.8
Combat radius - >900km

Monday, December 17, 2012

F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet (Boeing)

F/A-18E/F Super Hornet is an advanced variant of F/A-18(A-D) Hornet. It's commonality with F/A-18 Hornet is less than 40% it's size from Super Hornet. F/A-18E/F enlarged in all dimensions & fitted with 2 extra weapons pylon.

Super Hornet powered by new more powerful GE F-414 engines instead of F-404 which powered Hornet. F/A-18E is a single-seat & F/A-18F dual-seat with reduce range due to re-sizing fuel tank to accommodate second crew.
Super Hornet is a multi-role fighter which able to compete with any 4th generation fighters. Super Hornet relies on next-generation AESA radar, JHMCS (Joint Helmet Mounting Cue System) HMD (helmet-mounted display) system, pilot-friendly controls and software to maintain F/A-18 E/F as air superiority fighters.

In 2003, F/A-18F Super Hornet Block II was build with redesigned forward fuselage & electronic enhancement. Most important upgrade are the new AN/APG-79 AESA radar which can perform simultaneously air and surface detection which offer advanced improvement on reconnaissance, jamming & communication capabilities.
Other modifications including internal IRST to detect infra-red emissions from enemy aircraft, enclosed weapon pods to lower radar signature , full spherical laser & missile warning system, new cockpit based on large touch-screen technology & improved F-414 engine (EDE/EPE) & conformal fuel tanks mounted to boost it's range.

Electronics counter-measures are upgraded by replacing the on-board jamming system AN/ALQ-65 with AN/ALQ-214 IDECM (Integrated Defensive Electronic Countermeasure) jamming which can integrate with towed decoy (ALE-50/ALE-55) & RFCM (radio-frequency Countermeasure). Countermeasure suites designed for use against radar guided missiles.
Advanced Crew Station (ACS) complete with Advanced Mission Computers & Display (AMC & D) that offer wide screen area & upgrade the mission computers from an assembly language  to an open architecture higher order language.
A fiber channel network switch and digital video map computer round out the ACS improvement. Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) was fitted.

For defensive suites / systems AN/ALR-67v3 Radar Warning Receivers system will alert the pilot about enemy radar targeting at their aircraft & provided accurate identification lethality & azimuth displays of both hostile & friendly emitters. It also controls the electronic warfare data bus & interfaces with EWS, on-board radar, air borne mission computer & weapon system.
DTS (Distributed Targeting System) improve on-board hardware & software processing to produce precise ground targeting solutions.

 Super Hornet also can perform tactical re-fueling role with specially equipped drop tanks that can extend re-fueling hoses. It can act as Aerial Re-fueling Store (ARS) where F/A-18 tanks can act as low capacity hose-and-drogue aerial tankers.

Super Hornet can be equipped with air-to-air missile (AIM-9 (up to X model) ASRAAM) & AIM-120C AMRAAM, air-to-ground/surface (JSOW, JDAM, SLAM-ER, AGM-65 Maverick, AGM-88 HARM (anti-radiation), precision guided bombs (Paveway II/IV).

It added size & weight has hurt the design acceleration compare to others 4th generation fighters aircraft like SU-30MKI, SU-35, MiG-35, Eurofighter Typhoon, Rafale & JAS-39 Gripen.

F/A-18F Block II base airframe & equipment with some equipment modified / added for conversion which equipped with jamming pods latter known as EA-18 Growler. It removes 20mm gun in the nose to add with underwing jamming pod, new electronics & mount special electronic warfare pods on the aircraft underwing (AN/ALQ-99) &wingtip pylons (AN/ALQ-218).
EA-18G retains 2 fuselage slots & underwing slots for weapon carriage can be used for extra fuel through wing pylon drop tanks. Weapon loads for EA-18 Growler included AGM-88 HARM/AARGM anti-radar missiles & AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missile for air defense. It will replace EA-6B Prowler aircraft.

Sunday, December 9, 2012

F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter

Carrier based variant of the F-35C in flight with the US Navy

F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter quoted as the largest global defense programmed in history. It was a major multinational program to developed and produce affordable stealthy multirole fighter aircraft. F-35 JSF developed in 3 variants, F-35A conventional version developed for US Air Force & others participant countries, F-35B Short Take-Off Vertical Landing (STOVL) for US Marines & British Royal Navy & F-35C conventional carrier launched version for US Navy.

Origin named of Lightning II was after the P-38 Lightning (Lockheed Martin) & English Electric Lightning Jet. It was developed & produce by Lockheed Martin Aeronautic Corporation as Lead Integrator& manufacturer (surveillance & targeting System, weapon interfaces) BAE System (UK) for aft fuselage lead, Electronic Warfare System & HMSS (Helmet Mounted Symbiosis System), Northop Grumman for APG-81 AESA radar, DAS 360 degree sensors, communication, navigation & identification avionics & software.

United Technologies Pratt & Whitney involved in designed & developing F135-PW-100 turbofan engine (F-35A & F-35C) & F135-PW-600 turbofan engine with LiftFan & rotating nozzle (F-35B). Others company involved in developing F-35 including Martin Baker (ejection seat), Rolls Royce (F-35B LiftFan), Stork Fokker (wiring system), VSI (Rockwell & Elbit) (Helmet-Mounted Display System) & General Dynamics (25mm Gatling gun & cockpit display).

It's development partners participation divided into 4 Tier. For Tier 1, involved in design and development, US & UK participated. For Tier 2, involved in significant investment of F-35 program, Italy & Netherlands fill this tier. Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway & Turkey can catogery in Tier 3 , for ordering commitment of F-35.

Singapore & Israel participate in Security Cooperation Partners. Israel commits to order 20 F-35i with option for another 75 planes in future. Singapore still did'nt commits any F-35 order in near future.

Japan become the first export customer for F-35A with 42 F-35A's order.

It's stealth designed as an affordable stealth multirole for air-to-air and air-to-ground mission. F-35 larger single engine without supercruise and supermaneuverability and less stealthier compare to F-22 Raptor. It was designed for 'low-observable' stealth when viewed from the front and less stealth to radar looking from sides & rear aircraft.

F-35 Lightning II powered by Pratt & Whitney F135-PW-100 (FF-35A &F-35C) & F135-PW-600 version with LiftFan and a nozzle that can rotate to point down for vertical landing. It's maximum speed can reach Mach 1.6.

F-35 was equipped with sensors that can act as high-end reconnaissance aircraft. Advanced APG-81 AESA radar is smaller and less powerful compare to APG-77v1 for F-22 Raptor.
APG-81 AESA radar can simultaneously detect & target for air-to-air and air-to-ground, ease maintenance & high-bandwidth communication benefits.
It's sensor fusion designed with several of sensors types embedded around the airframe which able the F-35 to perform top-level reconnaissance.
F-35 was superior in infra-red and ground looking sensors. It's also has a potential as electronic warfare aircraft. All sensors are connected computers for single-picture view & the pilot able to see everything in one screen. F-35 doesn't have HUD display which was replace with JHMDS helmet (VSI) or HMSS (BAE System). All-aspect DAS (Distributed Aperture Sensors) allow or 360 degree targeting of the aircraft around F-35 which can combine with inertial guidance and datalink features of modern missiles like AIM-9X ASRAAM and AIM-120C AMRAAM.

ALIS information & diagnostic system was fitted for auto diagnostic and record.

F-35 Lightning II standard internal weapons ((inside weapon bays) is 2 x AIM 120C AMRAAM & 2 x JDAM (Joint Direct Attack Munition).
For external fix weapons, AIM-9L/M/X sidewinder, AIM-132 ASRAAM, GBU-39 SDB (GPS guided), GBU-12 Paveway II laser-guided, Paveway IV laser/GPS/GPS guided & AGM-154A/C JSOW GPS/IIR guided glide bombs.
For future, MBDA Meteor long-range air-to-air missile & MBDA SPEAR medium range strike missile plan for installation on British F-35. Kongsberg JSM (Joint Strike Missile) for Norway F-35 & Python-5 SRAAM for F-35i for Israel.



F-35A is Conventional Take-Off Landing (CTOL) version for US Air Forces & others country. F-35A is the most number of F-35 orders / export. It was less expensive due to largest production program. Estimated cost for F-35A is US $108.3 million. It was designed for 9G capability maneuverability limits with Air-to-Air capability similar toF-16 fighter jet.
It's improved stealth to reduce detection ranges with internal weapon bays & electronic superiority. It was fitted with 25mm Gatling gun / cannon. For air-air refueling, it fitted with Dorsal Refueling Receptable for refueling using aerial tanker boom.

F-35B STOVL (Short Take-off Vertical Landing)

F-35B is the most expensive F-35 Lightning II fighter variant. It's estimated cost around US $138 million. This version is for US Marines and UK Royal Navy.
It can take-off in short distances & vertically landing (due to large LiftFan and nozzle rotate down) on ships.
It use retractable mid-air refueling probe for air-air refueling.


F-35C designed was 30% larger wing area compare to others F-35 with larger tails & continuous wingtip ailerons. It provides the precise low-speed handling for carrier approach and reinforced structure to strengthen the aircraft for ship landing.
It was fitted with retractable refueling probe for mid-air refueling. It's estimated cost is US $125 million each.


Length        : 51 m
Height        : 14 m
Wingspan   : 35 ft (F-35A/F-35B) & 43 ft (F-35C)
Engine        : F135-PW-100 (F-35A & F-35C) & F135-PW-600 with LiftFan (F-35B)
Thrust         : 25,000 lbs (F-35A & C) & 26,000 lbs (F-35B)
Max speed  : Mach 1.6 at altitude
Max Gs      : 9g (F-35A) / 7.5g (F-35C) / 7g (F-35B)
Max weight : 70,000 lbs (F-35A & F-35C) / 60,000 lbs (F-35B)
Range (IF)  :  1200 nm (F-35A & C) /900nm (F-35B)
Max payload : 18,000 lbs

Thursday, December 6, 2012

AH-64D Longbow Apache Block III Attack Helicopter

During early staged, AH-64D Block I which cover block 2 to Block V. Lot VI of AH-64 D, included the mast compatible with dual-mode Hellfire II missile, updated self protection suites & better cockpit displays.
AH-64D Longbow Apache Lot VII till Lot X later built as AH-64D Block II Standard adds improved electronics and software to include the Longbow mast, compatible duel-mode Hellfire missile capability, color cockpit displays which include moving digital maps & more advance self-protection suites.

In early 2007 saw the latest conversion of AH-64D, later known as AH-64D Extended Block II Standard, which later known as AH-64D Block III.
AH-64D Block III system upgraded includes improved flight performance with Digital Electronics Control, upgraded drive system which increase helicopter power. The new composite rotor blades combine with upgraded engines will improve AH-64D Apache Block III cruise speed, climb rates and payload.

New avionics allow to fly in clouds & bad weather. Taiwan was the first foreign customer for AH-64D Block III.

Block III sensor performance was upgraded to extend it sensor range for air & land attack & can be pair with new long range weapons / missiles. Mast mounted radome for houses AN/APG-78 long bow fire control & radar for long range detection & attack. It's use millimiter-wave sensing which will improve radar performance under poor visible condition. The short wavelength with narrow beam-width is more resistant to electronic countermeasure when the radar guided a missile to their target.
The radar range for Block III is extended range from previous Block II.

At the same time, this radar has an option to use Unmanned-Aerial-System Tactical Command Data-Link Assembly (UTA) than mounted on the mast. The UTA can control the UAV flights, payloads, laser designators from inside helicopter. The UAV will streaming their sensor feedback to Apache Block III displays. It can helping Block III Apache to designated the targets & surveillance of the area where it going to target / attack.


Engine - T700-GE-701D engines
Sensor & targeting targets - Arrowhead modernised TADS / NNS sensor & targeting turrets
Missiles - Air-to-Air (Hellfire fire and forget light strike & Stinger anti-aircraft missile
Radar - AN/APG-78 millimiter wave radar guidance defensive system ((Fire Control Radar) & AN/APR-48A Radar Frequency Interferometers
Rockets - 70mm rockets
Avionics - Transponder, simulator, GPS / Initial Navigation System (INS) & communication equipment
Countermeasures - AN/ALQ-144 Av3 Infrared Jammers; AN/APR-39 Av4 Radar Signal Detection Set; AN/ALQ-136 v5 Common Missile Warning System
Gun / Cannon - 30mm Automatic gun  

Tuesday, December 4, 2012

Eurocopter EC 725 Cougar Long Range Military Helicopter

Eurocopter EC-725 start designed in 1996 when the French Air Force needed a new helicopter designed for CSAR (Combat, Search And Rescue) mission. Initially they chose AS 532A2 Super Puma / Cougar. Later on French Air Force requested for major modification of Super Puma / Cougar that needed for a new variant designated as EC 725 Cougar. It maiden flight was in November 2000.

Eurocopter EC 725 Cougar is a combat proven multirole 11 tonnes military helicopter designed for CSAR, Special Forces operation & medium utility roles. EC 725 Cougar was capable in challenging operation conditions & was designed to fly under most extreme conditions.
French EC 725 Caracal was the first production line of improved Cougar rotary wing family.

EC 725 Cougar missions were Tactical Transport Helicopter (TTH), special operations, SAR / CSAR, maritime patrol, naval missions. It's large cabin enables EC 725 Cougar to transport 28 soldiers with 2 crew & carry wide variety of weapons & sensors.
For medical mission (Medevac), it can accommodate 12 stretches casualty carrying installations & 4 attendants. It can do a naval mission including anti-surface warfare (ASuW), anti-submarine warfare (ASW), search and rescue (SAR) when equipped with naval mission systems like a sonar, sonobuoy dispenser, SAR cabin configuration with rescue hoist & emergency float.

EC 725 Cougar fitted with in-flight refueling probe, multipurpose engine air intakes & FLIR (Forward-looking-infra-red). It's fuel load is 990 gallons and can fly for more than five hours.

Cougar designed with new spheriflex main rotor head & spheriflex tail rotor head. The S blade rotor system designed for very low vibration level, high performance & easy to maintain.
New main gearbox, Mk2 MGB reinforced by deep nitrogen hardening of the driving input bevel / gear with 8 % more power and can dry run for 30 minutes (gearbox protection).
Full glass cockpit with AMLCD (Active Matrix LCD) with 4 screens 6" x 8", 2 crew 4" x 5" displays.
The air-frame was from mixed composite metallic with extensive use of composite material to reduced radar signature (low radar signature.
Armouring cockpit doors & armouring crew seat was for crew protection.

For avionics, it was equipped with highly advanced 4-axis autopilot with full envelops protection. It can be fixed with surveillance & targeting turrets & carry most modern avionics & navigation equipments.

General Characteristic:

Crew - 2 pilots
Capactiy - 28 troops
Length - 19.5 m
Rotor diameter - 16.2 m
Height - 4.6 m
Empty weight - 5,330 kg
Loaded weight - 11,200 kg
Power plant - 2 x Turbomeca Makila 1A4 turboshafts engines with 1,800 kw each engine


Maximum speed - 324 km/hr
Cruise speed - 285 km/hr
Maximum range - 857 km
Service ceiling - 6,095 m
Rate of climb - 3.6 m/s


It can be fitted with:

- 2 x 68 mm Thales Brand or Forge Zeebrugge side mounted rocket launchers (19 rockets for each
- 2 x 20 mm pod mounted GIAT cannons with 180 rounds
- Dassault Electronique EWR-99 FLUIT RWR (radar warning receiver) for electronic protection suite
- Alkan ELIPS multipurpose chaff & flare dispenser (countermeasure)

User Countries

French EC 725 Caracal was the first EC 725 in operation. Brazil ordered 50 EC 725 Cougar. Mexico, Malaysia (12 units), Indonesia (6 units), Kazakhstan (20 units) & Thailand (CSAR configuration) (4 units) was the others user.


Tuesday, November 27, 2012

Gowind OPV (Off-shore Patrol Vessel) / Corvette (DCNS)

Gowind OPV / corvette designed & manufactured by DCNS. Gowind entry level / demonstrator, OPV L'Adroit now under trial with French Navy. It's main mission is fisheries protection, maritime safety & security. Key of advances design are aft boat ramps, panoramic bridges, single enclosed mast & Polaris smart mission system. Gowind OPV / corvette will extend area of surveillance & automatic detection of suspicious behaviour of other ships.
Gowind family ship is a family of ships with some common systems & design elements and designed for in-shore patrol needs to heavy corvette or light frigate designs. It shape was designed for stealth feature with improved radar cross section signature.


Gowind length around 85mm to 107mm with displacement between 1,000 tones to 3,000 tones. It can going out for a mission with 3 weeks blue-water endurance, 8,000 nautical miles range. Maximum speed of Gowind is 21 knots - 28 knots.
It's can accommodate a helicopter, UAV & a crew of 50 - 75 persons.

Panoramic bridge was built for 360 degrees visibility with single enclosed mast for radar for extended area surveillance. Gowind was designed using steel mono hull design. It was design for simplicity & easy customer for costuming based on customer requirement and fabricate in local shipbuilding under Transfer of Technologies (TOT) agreement.


Gowind class OPV / corvette mission is for anti-piracy, sea control & denial, combat, counter-terrorism, anti-smuggling, oil & gas platform protection, search & rescue, fisheries protection etc.

Command & Control Systems

SETIS Combat Management System was fitted in Gowind Class OPV / corvettes. SETIS designed was incorporates with COTS (commercial-of-the-shelf) open system architecture. For anti-submarine, VDS sonar (Thales) with towed array sonar which integrated with 2 triple torpedo launcher was fitted. Thales Captas family was used for hull sonar.
Thales SMART-S Mk2 3D multiple beam radar fitted for ship navigation system. Rheinmetall TMEO Mk2 / EO used for electro-optical, tracking & fire control radar.

Weapon Systems

Gowind OPV / corvette equipped with water cannon, 12.7 mm remotely controlled guns, 20 mm guns, 76mm naval guns, anti-ship missile, ship self defense / air defense system & Electronic Warfare Suite (EWS).
It can be fitted with 12 Vertical Launch cells (DCNS Sylver cells) which can launch MBDA VL MCA air defense missile or Aster 15 Surface-to-Air missiles.
For anti-ship / surface missiles, Exocet MM40 Block II anti-ship missile can be fitted.


Gowind corvette powered by 4 x MTU Diesel engines in CODAD configuration which driven propeller & water-jet system & water-line engine exhaust system for low thermal sign.

Gowind Variants

Gowind OPV / Corvette was designed in a few variants:

1. Gowind Control Corvette / 120 Designs / Sovereign Enforcer
1,000 tones Gowind Control corvette designed for patrol & sovereignty Enforcement in littoral & EEZ. It missions included special forces & commando fast deployment.
The hull length for Gowind Control is 85 m & armed with 76mm cannon and can deploy inflatable boat. ES L'Adroit was designed in Gowind Control corvette for sea trial with French Navy.

2. Gowind Presence Corvette / High Seas Master
2,000 tones Gowind High Seas Master designed for long range intervention and long period at sea (up to 3 weeks). It designed accommodate for helicopter landing deck.

3. Gowind Action Corvette / Deterrent Warrior
Gowind Action corvette was equipped with a suite of anti-air & anti-surface sensors & weapons system. It can be fitted with VL MICA short-range surface-to-air missile & Exocet MM40 anti-ship missile.

4. Gowind Combat / 200 corvette
2,250 tonnes fully armed Gowind Combat can carry 57 mm guns, vertical-launched cells, anti-aircraft, anti-ship missiles & can accommodate a helicopter up to 10 tones weight.

User Countries

ES L'Adroit Gowind OPV already on trial with the French Navy. South Africa also showed interest with Gowind OPV / Corvette ship.

In October 2010, Bousted received LOI from Malaysia government to supply 6 units new SGPV (Second Generation Patrol Vessel). Bousted Naval Shipyard finally awarded a contract to supply 6 units new SGPV for Royal Malaysian Navy worth US $2.6 billion. Bousted chose DCNS Gowind Class OPV / Corvette design for new RMN SGPV. Malaysia become the first Gowind Class paid customer. Competitor for new SGPV during evaluation process including Dutch firm Kamen which offered SIGMA ships (similar with Indonesia SIGMA ship) & Germany TKMS which offered MEKO class ship.
Malaysia Gowind OPV / Corvette ship configuration expected are 109 m length, displacement of 2,750 tones and speed of 29 knots.

It will powered by 4 MTU diesel engines with CODAD configuration & expected to be equipped with Bofors 57 mm Mk 4 gun, 8 x VL Mica launcher, Breda 30mm remote controlled gun.

Friday, November 23, 2012

Sukhoi SU-30 Fighter Jet Series

Sukhoi SU-30 fighter jets was derivative of SU-27 long-range fighter jet. It was based on SU-27PU jet. SU-30 had many variants like SU-30, SU-30 I, SU-30K, SU-30 KI, SU-30 KN, SU-30 M, SU-30MK (which later variants like SU-30 MKK, SU-30 MKI/MKM/MKA, SU-30MK2, SU-30 MKV etc.).

Main role of SU-30 fighter jets is as interceptor, airborne command, multi-role fighter for air superiority & ground / surface attacks. SU-30 series designed by Sukhoi and manufactured by Komsomolsk-on-Amur-Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO), Irkut Aircraft Production Association (IAPO) & HAL (licensed production of SU-30MKI).

Operators for SU-30 fighter jets are Russia, Algeria, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Venezuela & Vietnam.


2-seat interceptor & airborne command post fighter aircraft.  Developed from SU-27PU in the late 1980's. 2-seat SU-27UB combat trainer was the basis for this variant. It was fitted with in-flight refueling probe to increase the aircraft range. Other modifications is avionics changed, fitting special communications & guidance equipment to command flights formation. Large CRT display was fitted for rear cockpit. Navigation  & fly-by-wire system also upgraded. Series production for SU-30 started in 1991.



In 1993, Sukhoi converted SU-30 Interceptor into demonstrator aircraft known as SU-30MK multi-role for export version. MK stand for 'Modernizirovannyi Kommercheskiy (modified commercial) which indicating new version developed for export. Improvement for SU-30MK including upgraded multi-role fire control system, air-to-ground capability to enhanced multi-role mission. Large variety of new guided missiles, guided & unguided bombs was added to armament options.
In air-to-air role, new R-77 (RVV-AE) medium-range active radar homing missile was added as options.

SU-30 K

First prototype (SU-30 I) flown in 1997. The second prototype was flown in 1998. The first batch of SU-30's for India Air Force delivered in 1997 (18 SU-30 K).

SU-30KI Multi-role single-seat 

KnAAPO started developed upgraded version of SU-27SK in 1995 which later known as SU-27MK. Upgrading included improved range & combat effectiveness for multi-role configuration. The first single-seat SU-30KI flown in 1998 which fitted with in-flight re-fueling probe, Satnav receiver, ILS / VOR navigation & landing system & integrated with RVV-AE (R-77) Beyond Visual Range air-to-air missiles.
Next phased of upgrading including advanced avionics, computers, phased array & weapons. It was painted in grey-black-blue and displayed at MAKS 1999 & LIMA 1999.

SU-30KN (Irkutsk)


Developed from SU-27UB 2-seat fighter.SU-30K was upgraded and known as SU-30KN. The first upgraded enables aircraft to operated guided Air-to-Surface & bombs with additional new mission computer, upgrading N001 radar & weapon control system.
The cockpit was equipped with Multi-Function Display and equipped with R-77 (RVV-AE) missile. The upgrading works can enhanced air-to-air capability by convert to phase array antenna.

SU-30MKK (China Multi-role Twin-seater - KnAAPO)

Developed for China configuration by KnAAPO. Equipped with modern multi-function displays & in-flight re-fueling system. Fitted with larger fin based on SU-35 design. New N001VE radar was compatible RVV-AE missile. SU-30MKK can carry a wide range of air-to-air & air-to-surface missiles on 12 hard points. Aircraft weight increased to 38,000 kg by air frame & landing gear strengthening.
In 1999 Sukhoi converted T10PU-5 into first prototype of SU-30MKK.
Indonesia also acquired SU-30MKK version.


Upgraded version of SU-30MKK featuring upgraded communication suite, radar, protection suite etc.

SU-30MKI Multi-role Twin-seater Flankers

India become the first customer of SU-30MK multi-role which later developed into SU-30MKI. SU-30MKI differs substantially from SU-30MK with installation of Saturn AL-31FP thrust vectoring control nozzles engines which able to vector up to 15 degrees (in 2 dimensional) vertical & lateral direction.
New radar NIIP N011 BARS multi-mode phased array radar (previously installed on SU-35/37 prototypes).
IRST (Infra-red Search & Track) system was replaced with an updated version known as OLS-30 (Optic-location System). Head-Up Display (HUD) & navigation system replaced with Sextant Avionics (French).

TV-guided Kh-59M missiles, sub-sonic Kh-31A / AS-17 Krypton multi-role missile. In air-to-air mission with new radar, it can simultaneously attack 4 aerial targets. 

SU-30MKM (Malaysia)

SU-30MKM multi-role Flanker was a variant based on SU-30MKI, tailored to meet Malaysia requirement with regard to it's avionics suite. Israel produced ECM was replaced with Russian & South African systems.
2 SU-30MKI pre-production aircraft served as prototypes for MKM. SU-30MKM was manufactured in Irkutsk and arriving in Malaysia on June 2007.

SU-30MKA (Algeria)

SU-30MKA was based on SU-30MKM/MKI variant featured French avionics including Damocles laser designation & targeting pod.


The latest variant of SU-30MKI/MKM for Russian Air Force. It will be equipped with new radar & new Russian avionics.

Wednesday, November 21, 2012

PT-91 Twardy Main Battle Tank

PT-91 M Pendekar

PT-91 Twardy MBT is a derivation of T-72 main battle tank that's going for modernisation, replacing & upgrading of its's systems. It's derived form T-72 M1 MBT, where later upgrading works with dual-axis stabilised Fire Control System (FCS), ERA protection, more powerful & efficient engine & gun auto loader.
This upgraded version known as T-72 M1Z MBT. The newly upgraded T-72 M1Z gave highly reliable system by having superior fire power, improved crew protection & impressive mobility.

Obrum responsible for design, R&D & upgrading works of T-72 MBT to PT-91 Twardy. Bumar Labedy manufactured PT-91 Twardy.

In 1996, US government try to get Poland in helping for 'Train & Equip' program to equipped Bosnia - Croatia army. Bumar Labedy start manufactured PT-91 since 1993.
In 2002, Malaysia decided to buy 48 modernized PT-91 M Twardy for US $380 million which later known as PT-91 Pendekar MBT (Malaysia specification).

Early model of PT-91 Twardy equipped with 850 HP turbocharged diesel engine for high power & speed. It can reach maximum road speed of 60 km/hr. For low speed maneuvering, low gear provides speed up to 7 km/hr. PT-91 MBT can fording water obstacle up to 5 m depth.

PT-91 MBT equipped with Fire Control System (FCS), where it consist in gunner station. It's use TPDK-1 sight for day & PCN-A (channel passive) sight of Thermal Imaging Sight for night mission capability. Both gunner & commander equipped with day & night vision capability.
Gunner station consists 2-axis stabilized platform with Thermal Imaging Sight & day light visual imaging sub-system, laser range-finder to detect, identify, acquire & track target during day & night missions / conditions.

It's 2-axis stabilized head mirror with 360 degree view allow the crews to acquire target rapidly & destroy multiple targets. The digital computer provides solution for 6 types of ammunition which information generated through up-to-date set on sensors or input from commander.

The crew protection suite was improved using very effective ERA (Explosive Reactive Armor) protection, which offer better protection against chemical energy projectiles.
Automatic fire suppression system will automatically detect any fire inside compartment & using Halon 1301 to suppress fire. For engine compartment, it use Halon 1211 to suppress fire inside the engine.

Laser warning system provides information for laser beams of sights range-finder & missile guiding system & react automatically by firing smoke grenades from two of 6 launcher banks.


Crew            : 3
Main Gun     : 125mm 2A46 Smooth-bore gun with 42 rounds (APFSDS / HEAT / HE / WP ammunition)
Gunner sight range : 200 m - 1000 m for day light & Thermal Imaging System for night sight
Computer system  : 16 bit digital computer
Sensors                : Infra-red sensor detection, temperature sensing fire wire, fire wire extinguishing medium

PT-91 Twardy Variants

1. PT-91A Twardy
An advance version of PT-91. It's power by S-1000 engine (1,000 HP). Manufactured for demonstration.

2. PT-91Z Hardy
An improved version of PT-91A Twardy which was equipped with advance SAVAN-15 Fire Control System

3. PT-91M Pendekar
An export variant for Malaysia which equipped with enhanced 125 mm smooth-bore gun, S-1000 engine (1,000 HP) French Fire Control System, communication system & hydro-pneumatic transmission.

4. PT-91 E/Ex
An export variant to different countries

5. PT-91P
An advanced variant of PT-91 E/Ex. It's manufactured for demonstration only.

Thursday, November 15, 2012

JAS-39 Gripen Lightweight Multirole Fighter

JAS-39 Gripen is a canard-winged successor to the Saab-37 Viggen (Thunderbolt (1971-2005). It's designed as 4th generation fighters (lightweight fighter) aircraft. Gripen can category in world class performance & economics operational cost.

Development Progress

Swedish government initiated for initial contract to developed of JAS-39 in 1982. In 1988, the first flight of Gripen prototype was begin. The first Gripen delivered to Swedish Air Force (A/B model) was in 1993.
Swedish government signed a contract with IG JAS for development of Gripen C/D model.

The first export customer for JAS-39 C/D was South Africa Air Force, which purchase for 26 JAS-39 C/D. In 2001, Hungary leased 14 JAS-39 A/B Gripen which later amended it for lease-for-buy of JAS-39 C/D in 2003. Czech Republic leased for 14 JAS-39 C/D in 2004.

In 2007, Swedish FMV approves development of JAS-39 NG DEMO (E/F). In the same year, SAAB chose Thales RBE2 AA AESA radar for Gripen Demo. Later development saw Dassault buys a significant stake in Thales, which later terminate RBE2 AA AESA joint-development with SAAB for JAS-39 NG. SAAB later signed ES-05 Raven AESA radar partnership with SELEX Galileo for Gripen NG.
Gripen NG Demo roll out in 2008.

Thailand buys initial 6 unit of JAS-39 C/D in 2008. Thailand later exercise to buys 2nd set of 6 JAS-39 C/D Gripen in 2010.

In 2012, Swiss picked JAS-39 E/F (NG) with joint development with Swedish government.

Design Characteristic

JAS-39 Gripen is excellent lightweight fighter with attractive flyaway costs & great performance. It canard design allows for quick maneuvers allowing to take advantage of Helmet Mounted-Sight in combination with Short Range Air-Air Missiles. It's power to weight ratio is very good. PS-05 mechanically scanned radar used for C/D version.
It short take-off & landing capability ease for operational in any field / highways. Gripen also had very attractive lifetime operational costs.

Main Features

Gripen is powered by 1 x GE F-404 (C/D version) which similar with Boeing F/A-18 Hornet (A/B/C/D). It's also equipped with in-flight refueling probe for air-to-air refueling & 320 gallons drop tanks.

Weapons & Targeting Systems

Gripen can widely install with variety of weapons/missiles with integration of missiles / weapons from American / Europe / Israel / South Africa.

For air-to-air mission, AIM-9M Sidewinder ASRAAM / A-Darter SRAAM / IRIS-T SRAAM can fitted for short range air-to-air engagement. For medium range air-to-air engagement (BVR) it can be fitted with AIM-120 C5 AMRAAM. Meteor long-range air-air missiles still on testing period for long range mission.

In air-to-ground mission, GBU-10/12/16 Paveway laser-guided bombs (500 lbs - 2000 lbs), GBU-49 Enhanced Paveway with laser / GPS guided bombs, DWS39 Mjolner gliding submunition dispenser & GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb (in-progress).

AGM-65 Maverick short-range strike missiles, RBS-15 anti-ship missile & Taurus KEPD 350 stand-off missile can be use for surface / anti-ship / bunker.

For surveillance & targeting pods, LITENING-III surveillance & targeting pod can be fix. For reconnaissance mission, EDS/TERMA MRP 39 Reconnaissance pod, Thales DJRP Reconnaissance pod & ReeceLite reconnaissance pod can be used.

Export / Users Country

Beside Sweden, others countries that using JAS-39 C/D version is South Africa, Hungary, Czech Republic, Thailand & the latest country was Swiss that become the first customer for JAS-39 E/F upgraded version.

SAAB also extensively promoted JAS-39 NG @ E/F for country like India, Brazil, Poland, Malaysia etc.

Improved / Upgraded JAS-39 NG (E/F)

Upgraded version JAS-39 NG (E/F) incorporated new sensors set, avionics & mission computers. The new Gripen NG fitted with next-generation AESA ES-05 Raven radar which offers substantial improvements in detection, resolution, versatility & lowest maintenance costs. The new AESA radar incorporated an IFF (identified friend or foe), increasing total field of view & improving a lock, fire & leaves maneuvers.

For sensors, Skyward-G IRST system was fitted. It's can use against some ground targets & all aerial targets with low observable radar stealth aircraft. Skyward-G IRST can integrated with medium long-range infra-red guided missile like MICA-IR / NCADE. It can provide missile guidance without triggering radar warning receiver of target aircraft.

Link-16 situation awareness was upgrade with the ability to share data with other types of aircraft, air defense radars, ships etc.
EW / ECM is another component of situational awareness that was included in upgrading works.

Payloads for Gripen E/F also increase. 10 hard points compare to 8 hard points (Gripen C/D) to carry weapons and fuel. Maximum payload was increase to 6,000 kg from 5,000 kg (Gripen C/D).
Fuel loaded was increase to extend combat air patrol to 1,300 km & unrefueled range to 2,500 km. New 450 gallons under wing drop tanks ( units) can increase E/F variant range to 4,075 km.

New engines, more powerful GE F-414G uprated engines (Volvo Aero partnership with GE) used for Gripen E/F. It's a variant of the engines that used in Super Hornet which modified for single engine operation with Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC).

Gripen NG equipped with full loaded weapons, pods & fuel tanks

Monday, November 12, 2012

Sukhoi SU-30MKM Multi-role Fighter

In August 2003, Malaysian government signed a contract for 18 SU-30MKM with Irkut Aircraft Production worth $900 million USD.

SU-30MKM/MKI is an advanced variant of SU-30MK/MKK fighter jets, which performance consider improved. It's design was added with canard.
On May 2007, a roll-out and demonstration ceremony for initial of 2 SU-30MKM was held at Irkut Aviation Plant.
F/A-18F Super Hornet is the main contender during tender evaluation process. MKM stand for Modernizirovannyi Kommercheskiy Malaysia - Modernised Export Malaysia. It's strongly similar with SU-30MKI with substantial advanced from original SU-30KI export version which maintaining basic air-frame but incorporating numbers of advance system from SU-35/37 project.

SU-30MKM/MKI can category as Super-maneuver via digital Fly-by-Wire, canards & 2 x TVC Lyulka AL-31FP (+/- 15 degree) engines producing 27,500 lbs thrust each with afterburners. SU-30MKM can reach 3,000km maximum range without re-fueling & 5,200km with in-flight refueling & maximum speed of Mach 2.35 (2,150 km) at altitude with 17,500m ceiling. It has an advanced in close-in fights where pilot can rapidly point the plane at potential targets then use R-73 / AA-11 Archers SRAAM with IR seeker, launch & quickly change direction to avoid from enemy aircraft target/attack.


It's equipped with NIIP N011M BARS phased array radar for long range aerial combat which can track up to 15 targets & engage 4 targets simultaneously.
For EWS (Electronic Warner System), Optic-Location System (OLS) with laser range-finder (manufactured by Russian) was fitted.

SU-30MKM was a multi-role fighter aircraft with ground attack capabilities and integrated with Thales Damocles Laser Designation Pod (Thales) surveillance & targeting pod that will improve capability for precision ground attack. It also equipped with rear facing radar, HUD (Thales), NAVFLIR (Navigation Forward Looking Infra-red) (French). Missile Approaches Warning System (MAWS) & laser warning sensor (LWS) supplied by SAAB Avitronics of South Africa.

Weapons System

SU-30 MKM can carry a wide range of weapon loads (up to 8,000 kg) under it's 12 hard points.

Munition - Guided bombs (KAB-500 / KAB-500KR / KAB-1500KR / KAB-1500K), 80mm & 130mm rocket pods & S-25 250mm rocket.

Air-to-Air Missiles - It can bring 2 x R-77 (RVV-AE) / AA-12 Adder which can launch simultaneously to engage 2 targets at the same time, 6 x R-27E (AA-10 C Alamo C) / R-27 TE (AA-10D Alamo D) medium range air-to-air missiles where it can be loaded with 2 x AA-10D with 6 x R-73E infra-red SRAAM in a mission.

Air-to-Surface missiles - 4 x anti-radiation missiles, 6 x laser guided SRAAM with TV control homing. For long range anti-surface, Kh-29 (AS-14 Kedge) with 317 kg warhead (TV homing guide) which stand-off launch range of 120 km, Zvezda Kh-31A (AS-17 Krypton) / Raduga 3M80E Moskit

Standard aerial weapon for beyond visual range engagement is AA-12 Adder / R-77 AMRAAMski. It also can carry IR guided AA-10 Alamo that provide no advance lock-on warning & could even equipped with long-range 'AWACS-killer' (KS-172 Novator) missiles.

For strike mission it can carry large loads (up to 8,000 kg) on 12 external hard points & diverse weapon loads for quite good radius range (up to 350 km).

Many military observers consider SU-30MKI/MKM was superior to all US fighter aircraft except F-22 Raptor. This included F/A-18 E/F Super Hornets & F-15 SG.

The main difference between SU-30MKM/MKI versions was SU-30MKI uses Israel avionics, ECM & LITENING targeting pods where SU-30MKM uses original Russian avionics with French Thales HUD, NAVFLIR & Damocles targeting pod & South Africa Avitronics for MAWS (missile approaches warning system) & laser warning receiver.

Integration of weapons, radar & avionics system was successfully test on SU-30MKM.

Later variant of SU-30MKI, SU-30MKI Mk.3 will be equipped with on-board HUMS (Health-and-usage Monitoring System) from South Africa Aerospace Monitoring and System (AMS) which provide hand-off monitoring of various component. It was reported that India new SU-30MKI Mk3 will be equipped with new NPO Saturn 117S turbofan engines & Tikhomirov NIIP Irbis E PESA radar (similar with SU-35S) or Phazotron Zhuk-AE AESA radar which will integrate with Brahmos anti-ship/surface cruise missile.

                                                                RMAF SU-30MKM

Saturday, November 10, 2012

Sukhoi SU-35S Multi-Role Fighter

SU-35S is advance variant of SU-30MKI. It's single-seat aircraft without canard fore-planes like SU-30MKI/MKM. It's design was lighter air frame, enlarge fan & engine inlets. SU-35S manufacture by KnaaPO aircraft production. It is design for air superiority & ground / surface attack for day / night mission.
New and lighter system was used including quadraple-digital FBW flight control system for superior aircraft maneuver.

SU-35S capable of carrying awesome weapon load (up to 8 tonnes) of guided and unguided air-air and air-ground weapon / missiles on 12 external hard points.

This aircraft powered by 2 x NPO Saturn / Ufa MPO 117S engines (improved AL-37FU) that produce 142 - 147 kN) with full 360 degree TVC. With extension of high-lift devices with large flaperon occupying the full trailing edge of the wing will improve aircraft maneuver.

SU-35S fixed with new N035 Irbis E PESA (Passive Electronically Scan Array) radar which is an improved variant of N011 M Bars use on SU-30MKI/MKM. Irbis E can detect & track up to 30 air targets and simultaneously engage up to 8 target. It also can detect, choose & tarck up to 4 ground targets up to 400km range. Rear-looking self-defense radar fixed in shorter tail sting.

For Electronic Warfare Defense System, L175 M Khibiny-M was fixed.

Sunday, November 4, 2012

F-16 E/F Block 60 (Desert Falcon)

F-16 E/F Block 60 aka 'Desert Falcon' is the most advanced F-16 fighter jets in the world. F-16 E/F Block 60 is a generation ahead of the F-16 C/D Block 50/52 fighter jets. UAE invested money for R&D of F-16 E/F Block 60 also known as "Desert Falcon".

It can carry more fuel and allow around 40% range increase to improve mission radius to 1,025 miles. New engine, GE F110-GE-132 turbofan jet engine can produce up to 32,500 lbs thrust to commensurate plane increase weight. This engine is a derivative of proven F110-GE-129 (29,000 lbs thrust).

Most significance changes / improvements for F-16 E/F are electronics. Northrop Grumman AN/APG-80 AESA radar was the first AESA radar use in air force (UAE) beside USAF. AESA radars have more power, better range, less sidelobe / leakage, better reliability & much better combat availability more capability through software improvements compare to previous mechanical scan AN/APG-68v9 that equip most advance F-16 C/D Block 50/52.
APG-80 can perform simultaneously air & ground scan, track & targeting. An agile beam will reduces the odds of detection by enemy aircraft when radar is on.

New targeting pod, AN/ASQ IFTS, derived from LITENING AT targeting pod. IFTS targeting pod was internally positioned which can reduces drag of radar signature and free space for weapons pylon. It can use to find aerial targets and ground targets.

Advance Electronic Countermeasures System known as "Falcon Edge" Integrated Electronic Warfare System (IEWS) provides advance warning capability and automatic countermeasures release.
Helmet-Mounted Sight (HMS) provides advance capabilities with their most modern counterparts and displays information from the aircraft radar and sensors.
Avionics improvement through advanced mission computers to enhance sensor & weapon integration on colour display cockpit.  

F-16 E/F Block 60 Development

First flight of F-16 E/F Block 60 was in December 2003 and the first Desert Falcon arrived in UAE in 2005.
Variant of F-16 E/F widely promote for a few international tender like India MMRCA (F-16 IN) & Brazil FX (F-16 BR).


F-16 E/F Desert Falcon can carry AIM-120 C7 AMRAAM missile, AIM-9X ASRAAM missile, JDAM DPS-guided bombs, Paveway III dual laser/GPS guided bombs, GBU-12 Paveway II laser guidance bombs & M61A 20mm cannon.

Sunday, October 28, 2012

SSK Scorpene Diesel Electric Submarine (DCNS France)

SSK Scorpene Diesel-Electric Submerine for Royal Malaysian Navy was designed in Perdana Class Submarine, based on Malaysian configuration. Scorpene submarines for RMN was jointly developed by DCNS (France) & Navantia (Spain). The first Scorpene, KD Tunku Abdul Rahman were built in Cherbourg Shipyard, France (DCNS). Second submarine, KD Tun Razak built in Cartagena Shipyard, Spain by Navantia.
Stern sections were built by Navantia, bow sections was built by DCNS.
Chile ordered the first Scorpene Submarine, O'Higgins Class (based on Chile configuration) and received it in 2005 and the second Submarine, Carerra in 2008.
The Scorpene submarine for Chile & Malaysia are in the same variant, CM-2000 (basic version without AIP).

Scorpene submarine can perform anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-surface warfare (ASuW), reconnaissance and intelligence, mine laying and special operation mission.   

Scorpene Diesel-Electric submarine designed using latest technologies from French nuclear-power classes submarine particuarly on acoustic discretion & combat system performance. Scorpene submarine designed in two configuration, CM-2000 basic version without AIP & AM-2000 version with MESMA AIP. It can category as medium-size submarines using state-of-the-art technology in submarine design & construction.
Excellent endurance become one of the few medium-size submarine designed suitable for extended ocean patrol duties. It's modular design can fulfill customer requirements.
Submariners from Royal Malaysian Navy have been training in the naval training centre of DCI/NAVFCO France since 2005.

Main Features:

Submarine length is 66.4m with 6.2m wide beam and draft of 5.4m. Pressure hull diameter of 6.2m, surface displacement of 1,670 tonnes.
The max speed of Scorpene is 20 knots during submerged & 12 knots during surface. It can accommodate 31 crews and can do a mission for 45 days.
Its maximum diving is 300m deep.

Combat Management System, Weapons & Protection System

Scorpene fixed with SUBTICS Combat Management System using 6 multi-function common consoles and centrally situated tactical table.

Scorpene submarine was fitted 6 (533mm) units torpedo tubes (bow located) that can launch Black Shark heavyweight torpedo, F17 & Mk48 torpedoes. It also can launch Exocet SM-39 anti-surface missiles. It can store 18 torpedoes / missiles at one time. The submarine also installed with infrared radiation detector & active / passive sonar detection. Sonar suite includes long-range passive cylindrical array, an intercept sonar, active sonar, distributed array, flank array, high resolution sonar for mine detection and obstacle avoidance and towed array.


Scorpene submarine can upgrade for Air Independent Propulsion (AIP). MESMA anaerobic system AIP will improve Scorpene ability to operate under water for sustained periods without having to surface. But its still not the same league as nuclear submarine which can submerged indefinitely. This improvement will reduces 'indiscretion time' on the surface where the sub can be spotted by radar & easily detect by underwater sensors.
CM-2000 Scorpene (without AIP) can operate underwater for 4-6 days without surfacing / snorkeling for oxygen to recharge it's batteries.
AM-2000 Scorpene (with AIP) able to operate up to 18 days, depending on variables like speed etc. India and Brazil Scorpene ordered AIP version of Scorpene.
MESMA AIP approach is closely closed-cycle steam turbine derivative of French nuclear-propulsion experience using non-nuclear steam generation. A conventional cycle turbine alternator is powered by steam generated from the combustion of ethanol & stored oxygen at pressure of 60 atmospheres. The pressure-firing allows exhaust CO2 to be expelled overboard at any depth without exhaust compressor.

For MESMA AIP installation, 8.3m AIP compartment needed for additional & 305 tonnes hull section weight additional for existing Scorpene.

Others AIP systems includes Kockums Sterling-cycle AIP fitted on Gotland class & Sodermanland class submarine. Republic of Singapore Navy acquired ex-Sweden Gotland class submarines fitted with Sterling AIP. HDW Siemens use PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) for U-209, U-212 & U-214 Class AIP's version. Consortium Thyssen Nordseewerke "Spectre" CCD (closed-cycle-diesel) system that uses liquid oxygen, diesel fuel & argon gas for RDM submarines with AIP.

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

Sukhoi SU-32/34 Fullback Fighter/Bomber

Sukhoi SU-32/34 frontline fighter-bomber is designed based on the platform of dual-seat Sukhoi SU-27UB. It was designed by Sukhoi and manufactured by Novosibirk Aircraft Production Association (NAPO). It's dual-seat configuration is side-by-side cockpit configuration including pilot rest room & toilet.

SU-34 can deliver high precision strike on heavily defended air, ground & naval targets (including small & mobile targets) on solo & group missions in any weather conditions, day or night & reconnaissance task. It can category in 4th Generation fighter-bomber aircraft by it's combat capabilities.
Active security system and modern computers allow the pilot / commander & navigator / operator of weapons to deliver precision strikes on targets & make maneuvers under hostile fire situation.

Main Distinctive Features of SU-34:

  • Large ordnance load & a broad line-up of guided air-launched weapons.
  • High load capabilities due to it designed of reinforced the frame & landing gear and increase fuel tank.
  • Effective digitally controlled twin afterburning turbojet engines.
  • In-flight re-fueling capability.
  • Advanced avionics line-up including multi-purpose PAA radar, on-board optical search & track station & integrated defensive aid suite.
  • It can engage long range combat missions close to ranges of medium strategic bombers.

Development / Early Designed of SU-32/34 Fighter/Bomber

Production of 2-seat fighter-bomber version of SU-27 officially begin in 1986. New fighter-bomber was manufactured known as T-10V. It design is side-by-side pilot seating. The first prototype known as T-10V-1 is built on the platform of SU-27UB.First test flight of T-10V-1 was in 1990 by Sukhoi Design Bureau test pilot. The first pre-production of T-10V is built & makes it's first test flight. It was reportedly adopted the SU-35 wing with additional stations, enlarged intenal fuel tanks for longer range, enlarged spine & lengthened tail straight.

It was later renamed SU-32. It first time shown abroad was at 1995 Paris Airshow. In June 2008, Sukhoi started full-scale production of SU-34 Fullback Fighter-Bomber.

Combat Characteristic of SU-34 Fullback fighter-bomber:

  • Long range attack / bomber mission 
  • Ability to re-fuel in the air and can act as buddy-buddy tanker with additional tank under wings
  • Comfortable cabin with rest room & toilet.
SU-34 Fullback was envisaged succescor of SU-24 Fencer (F-111 analogue version of Russian). It's mission is to deliver sufficiently large ordnance load to pre-determined area, hit the target accurately and take evasive action again pursuing enemy fighter aircrafts. It also able to handle enemy fighters in combat if require. It can match up well against any American teen fighters (F-16 C/D, F/A-18 Hornet/Super Hornet, F-15E).

Main Characteristic of SU-32/34 Fullback:

  • 45.1 tonnes maximum take-off weight
  • 8 tonne ordnance load on 10 hardpoints (can accommodate precision guided weapons; air-air missiles like R-73/AA-11 Archer / R-77 (AA-12 Adder "Amraamski"
  • Armed with a 30mm Gsh-301 gun & 180 rounds 
  • Powered by AL-31FM1 engines built by Salyut Company which can generate thrust up to 13.5 metric tonnes (over 29,000 lbs) and have 1,000 hours service life in between repairs. More powerful AL-41 engines may fit in future
  • It maximum speed of mach 1.8 at altitude
  • Maximum range of 3,000km with standard drop tanks. It maximum range can extend to over 4,000km with additional drop tanks. Fitted with in-flight re-fueling probe for mid-air refueling. Typical gound attack flight operation will shorter the range around 600km on internal fuel & 1,500km with external fuel tanks
  • Can fly in TERCOM (Terrain Contour Matching) modes for low-level flight & relies on software to execute other difficult maneuvers. It front horizontal empennage behind the cockpit designed to handle air pockets found in low altitude high speed flight
  • A 17mm armoured cockpit for pilot & co-pilot protection
  • 2 parallel K-36DM ejector seats that can be activated at any speed & altitude
  • Fitted with Leninets B004 phased array multi-mode X-band radar that can interleaves terrain- following radar and other modes similar to AN/APQ-164 phased array radar for B-1B Stealth bomber. It can detect at a range of 200-250km against large surface target; ground mapping capability of 75-150km & GMTI moving target tracking of 30km. Detection performance against fighter sized aerial targets are 90km.
Jamming variant of SU-32/34 Fullback with L175V/KS418 high power jamming pod still in developement progress.

Monday, October 15, 2012


HAWK 100

Hawk 100 aircraft original design is as a trainer jet with weapon training capability. Hawk 100 jet trainer also can be used as light attack aircraft.
During early staged of design, BAE System developed experimental project known as EGA (Enhanced Ground Attack) Hawk that feature avionics & weapons integrated based on F-16 Falcon. EGA Hawk design later known as Hawk 100.

Main features of Hawk 100 is:

  • Twin-seat version
  • More powerful new engine Rolls Royce Adour 871 jet engine
  • Extended 'chisel' nose to accommodate laser range finder (Ferranti) & FLIR imager (Marconi)
  • Avionics & Electronic Warfare System (EWS) - Radar Warning Receivier (RWR), chaff & flare dispenser, advance navigation && attack system (radar altimeter & low level strike capability, databus - MIL-STD-155 3B). RWR will integrate with chaff & flared dispenser in manual & auto mode as protection suite.
  • New cockpit design (Multi-Function Display MFD), Head-up Display (HUD), HOTAS controls & night vision goggles.
  • 6 external hard points (2 wingtips sidewinder launch rails, 4 wing pylons). The wing pylons can fix with twin store rack. Total weapon load for Hawk 100 is 3,000kg including 9 250kg bombs.
  • Wide range of weapons / munitions like Air-Air Missiles (AIM-9 ASRAAM / Medium range AIM-120 AMRAAM @ Skyflash); Air-Ground / Surface Missiles (Maverick); Anti-ship missiles (Sea Eagle); Sting Ray (Marconi) Homing torpedo; Paveway II guided bomb etc.
  • Taller vertical tail plane.

HAWK 200

Hawk 100 demonstrator flew for the first time in 1987. It design much more as light fighter jet & trainer. BAE System than considering a new light fighter aircraft based on Hawk 100. The new aircraft later known as Hawk 200 light attack aircraft.
The first Hawk 200 demonstrator flew for the first time in 1986 (earlier than Hawk 100). The Hawk 200 demonstrator lost due to accident / crash during demonstration a few months later.

Hawk 200 used Rolls Royce Adour 871 jet engine, combat wing & other kits / cockpit layout similar to Hawk 100. It was designed for single-seat configuration which saw new fuselage from cockpit on-ward. I can fix with in-flight refueling probe for in-flight refueling (HAWK 200 for RMAF fixed with re-fueling probe).

Northop Grumman APG-66H pulse-doppler X-band multimode radar with 10 air-air modes & 10 air-surface modes based on APG-66 use in F-16 A/B.
30mm Aden cannon was built into the nose of Hawk 200.

Hawk 200 range without drop tanks is 2,428 km. If fitted with 3 drop tanks (864 litre) it ferry range is 3610 km. It combat radius is 1,234 km. It can be fix with reconnaissance pod.


Hawk LIFT design was based on Hawk 127 AJT for Australia. Hawk 127 AJT is advance variant of Hawk 100 jet trainer. It features cockpit that compatible with F/A-18 Hornet.
Hawk LIFT designed to provide training for new generation combat aircraft like Eurofighter Typhoon, JAS-39 Gripen etc. that features an improved cockpit & avionics. The cockpit design included 3 unit colour flat-panel MFD, HOTAS controls & HUD.

Cockpit design is modular to suite with customer requirements. It also features a GPS/INS navigation system, new APU (AlliedSignal), an airframe Health & Usage Monitoring System (HUMS), two mission computers & an optional in-flight re-fueling probe.

New Rolls Royce Adour 900 could be fitted with Hawk LIFT. Adour 900 designed has same thrust capacity with Adour 871 with additional FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) & improve engine lifetime by twice. South Africa become the first export customer for Hawk LIFT.


UAE is the first customer for the new Hawk 100's & 200's. In 1990 UAE ordered 18 Hawk 102's with delivery in 1993. Oman placing an order of 4 Hawk 103's & 12 Hawk 203's which delivered in 1993.

Malaysia ordered 10 Hawk 108's & 18 Hawk 208's in late 1990. The aircraft delivered from 1993 till 1995. Hawk208's were the first Hawk 200's series sold with in-flight re-fueling probe.

In 1993 Indonesia ordered 8 Hawk 109's & 16 Hawk 209's with an option for 16 more Hwak 209's which was exercised later. All Hawk 109's & 209's jet complete delivered by 1998.

In 1993, Australia choosed Hawk 127 for their advance jet trainer (AJT). Australia ordered 33 Hawk 127's. First 12 units delivered in flying condition from UK. The rest assembled in Australia. Deliveries completed in 2001 & 2002. During tender competition, Hawk 127 out-bid McDonnel Douglas T-45 Goshawk.

In 2004, India order 66 Hawk 115 (AJT).

                                                                        HAWK 200

Friday, October 5, 2012

Rafale Multi-role Combat Aircraft / Omnirole

Dassault Rafale Multi Role Combat Aircraft / Omnirole fighter is developed & manufactured by Dassault Aviation with Safran (engines) & Thales (avionics / sensors). Rafale program began in 1985 after French break away from multinational consortium for new European fighter aircraft project later known as Eurofighter. French intended for a lighter aircraft suitable for naval use. French finally opted for expensive but independent choices named Rafale. Rafale is on the process to become fully omnirole and for global export currently. Initial version of Rafale not fully multirole due to lack of capabilities in ground & ship attack.
Main rivals for global fighter export markets is EurofighterTyphoon (EADS), Sukhoi SU-30 family, F-15E & F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet (Boeing), F-16 C/D Block 50 @ F-16E/F Block 60 (Lockheed Martin), JAS-39 E/F Gripen (SAAB), F-35 Lightning II (Lockheed Martin) & MiG-35.

Rafale Variant

Rafale is powered by Safran M-88 twin jet engines that can generating up to 16,500 pound of thrust with afterburner for each engine.Canard was installed to improved maneuverability & to reduce radar detection. This aircraft pre-installed with 30mm GIAT DEFA 719B gun. It has 14 hardpoints that can carry weapons, missiles, tanks, pods etc up to 10 tonnes. For early version Rafale (F1 & F2) Thales RBE-2 mechanically-scanned array radar was installed. The radar can link with MBDA MICA RF missiles & Meteor long-range BVR missiles (on progress). Optronics Infrared Search & Track system (Thales / Sagem OSF) can integrate with MBDA MICA IR medium range Air-Air missile in passive attack.

Rafale production / design divided into several capabilities / series or better known as tranche. Rafale M are single-seat fighter for maritime / naval version. This version was added with strengthened landing gear, re-inforced / improved airframe & hook arrester for ship landing purpose.
For Air Force, twin-seat Rafale B & single-seat Rafale C was designed / produced. All Rafale models (B, C & M) divided into Tranche improvements. Early models of Rafale category as F1. It features mainly for air superiority (air-air) missions. Early model of Rafale, Rafale M included in this category. Latest variant of Rafale M, Rafale B (2-seat) & Rafale C (single-seat) was built in F2 standard. F2 standard has capability to carry Precision Guided Munition plus air superiority capabilities. F2 improvements included radar integrated ground attack & terrain following modes, can carry laser guided bombs (smart bomb), cruise missile, passive guided missile using IRST, link 16 datalink, tanker role etc.

Fully capable F3 standard version will adds precision ground attack, integration with RECO NG reconnaissance pod & Thales Damocles surveillance & targeting pods, RBE2-AA AESA radar, integrated with anti-ship missile (Exocet AM39). It can carry ASMP/A air-launch stand-off nuclear missile. Integration with MBDA Meteor long-range air-ar missile (BVR) still on test/progress.


Rafale multi-role fighter aircraft can operate on widely range of mission:

1. Air defense / air superiority
2. Close air support
3. Ground surface attack (laser guided bombs, stand-off precision weapons/cruise missiles)
4. Anti-ship
5. Nuclear Strike mission
6. Reconnaissance
7. Tanker role capability for buddy refueling


HOTAS system used to control the aircraft. For aircraft control data, mission data & firing cues, the cockpit was equipped with HUD, wide-angle display (Thales Avionique).

Multi-image HUD show tactical situation & sensor data and two touch-screen displays will display aircraft system parameters and mission data.
Pilot will equip with HMS & display. Camera & on-board recorder will record image of HUD during a mission.


Range of weapons for Rafale includes:

Air-Air missiles - MBDA MICA RF/IR, Magic, ASRAAM, AMRAAM, MBDA Meteor long-range missile
Air-Ground missiles - Apache, AS-30, HARM, Maverick, Storm Shadow, SCALP-EG
Guided bombs - GBU-49 Enhanced Paveway II, Sagem AASM GPS/INS precision guided bomb (six can
                         carry at one time)
Anti-ship missile - Exocet AM-39, Penguin 3 & Harpoon missiles
Strategic mission (nuclear) - MBDA ASMP-A stand-off nuclear missile (French only)


Thales Spectra was Rafale electronic warfare system. It integrated transmitter, radar warner, laser warning receiver, missile warning, detection system and jammers.

Optronic system is Thales/SAGEM OSF IRST for search, target identification, telemetry and automatic target designation & tracking.


Rafale was picked in India MRCA program outperform Eurofighter Typhoon. Dassault also active in offering Rafale for Brazil FX-fighter program, Kuwait AF, Malaysia, Oman, Qatar, UAE and others country.

Rafale lost for export competition in Algeria (SU-30MKA), Greece (F-16 C/D), Morocco (F-16C/D), Netherlands (F-35A), Norway (F-35A), Saudi Arabia (Eurofighter), Singapore (F-15SG), South Korea (F-15K), Switzerland (JAS-39E/F Gripen) & UAE (F-16E/F).

Friday, September 21, 2012

MiG-29 N

MiG-29N is an export version of MiG-29 aircraft with Malaysia configuration. The MiG-29N was derivation of MiG-29SE export version from MiG-MAPO of Russia. Malaysia received MiG-29SE version without 'fatback' extended dorsal spine. In June 1994, Malaysian government had signed a contract with MiG-MAPO for 16 MiG-29N (single seat) & 2 MiG-29N UB (twin-seat / training). The contact valued around $600 million USD.
Delivery of MiG-29N began in July 1995.

MiG-29N powered by 2 x Isotov RD-33 Klimov jet engine. It can carry 3,200kg / 1136 US gallon with 1184 kg centreline tank & 2 x 1150 litre external wing tanks tank capacity. Maximum range for MiG-29N is 2,100km. The flight control, suspension & weapon system was upgraded from MiG-29S version. New reliability gearbox on engines & flight control roll limiter & rudder also enhanced for higher AOA (angle of attack) stability.
This aircraft equipped with retractable in-flight refueling probe for in-flight refueling.
To ease maintenance works, on-board diagnostic system was built-in in MiG-29N.

Radar system for MiG-29N is N019M/ME improved radar design with 10 targets track & 2 targets engagement simultaneously using BVR missiles. New active jammer linked to Radar Warning Receiver with western IFF (Identified Friend or Foe) system also installed on MiG-29N. GPS fitted for satellite navigation system

Infrared Search & Track System for laser targeting system was fixed in this aircraft.

Weapon System

MiG-29N is one of the earliest fighter aircraft using BVR missiles in South East Asia region. Malaysia request for the latest R-77 (RVV AE) better known as AMRAAMski in the western countries during the purchase of MiG-29N. 2 x R-77 can equipped MiG-29N at one time. Another medium range weapon it can carry are 2 x R-27 (AA-10 Alamo) Air-Air guided missile - R-27R1 & R-27E.
For short range Air-Air missile, it can carry 2 x R-73 (AA-11) missile for WVR mission.

Unguided bombs (250kg / 500kg) & unguided rocket (S-8 (80mm) & S-24 (240mm)) can use on land / surface attack mission.
GSh-301 30mm gun pre-installed with this jets.

6 - 7 under wing missile hard points can be increase to 8 hard points to carry missiles, rockets, bombs & tanks.

For aircraft protection, internal active electronics jamming system fixed for selfdefence against radar detection & heat seeking missile. Chaff & flare system also installed (manually operated) for protection purpose.

Thursday, August 2, 2012



Eurofighter Typhoon is 4th generation fighter aircraft to continue/improve legacy of twin engine fighter jets like F-14 Tomcat, F-15A-E Eagle, F/A-18A-D Hornet even the latest F/A-18E/F Super Hornet multirole fighter aircraft.
The European Consortium (EADS Military Aircraft (Germany), BAE System (UK), Alenia Aeronautica (Italy) & EADS Cassadian (formerly CASA) (Spain) responsible for design and developed Eurofighter Typhoon jets. French left the European Consortium during the early stage of design.

In 1998 production agreement between four member countries, 620 Eurofighter fighter jets will be built base on three improved capabilities contract tranches (Tranche I, II & III). In 2009, all countries members decided to continue the production of Eurofighter last tranches, Tranche 3A and renew their effort for export of Eurofighter Typhoon.


Eurofighter program is based on effort of four European countries (UK, Germany, Italy & Spain) to find a new design for new European fighter aircraft.
It began in 1985, when 5 European countries (UK, France, Germany, Italy & Spain) formed a partnership for Future European Fighter Aircraft (FEFA) program. French ended their partnership in 1985due to differences on the aircraft design and their leading role request not fulfil. French continued their design with  new aircraft later known as Rafale.

The other four nations continued new European fighter project known as Eurofighter Typhoon in 1986. Eurofighter developed base on clipped delta wing, canard, twin engine and lower radar signature. On the other side, Rafale development more on weapon load and multirole capability which included naval version.

Eurofighter aircraft design more focus on air superiority role / high level of agility (good aerodynamic, very good thrust-to-weight ration, fast-slew-point capability and integrated of electronics sensor and defensive system which included pilot friendly cockpit design.

On Air to Air combat role, it relies on long range detection using mechanically-scanned phased array ECR-90 Captor radar and PIRATE Infrared Search & Track (IRST) system combined with array of advance Air to Air weapons / missiles. The pilot Voice Throttle & Stick System (VTAS) also install in the cockpit.


  • Tranche 1 - Eurofighter Typhoon Tranche 1 is the first block inception of Eurofighter tranches. It designed for good aerial combat and high agility in air superiority . However it lacked Air to Ground / Anti-ship role.
  • Tranche 2 - Tranche 2 production begin in 2008. For Tranche 2, it maintain good air superiority role with added precision ground attack capability. But it capability still cannot categorise as fully multirole fighter aircraft compare to F/A-18E/F Super Hornet & F-15E Strike Eagle. The system included anti-jam Global Positioning System (GPS) from Raytheon System Ltd.
  • Tranche 3 - It base on Tranche 2 standard plus with upgraded power system & electronically for future growth / upgrade. One of the major upgraded for Tranche 3 is E-Scan AESA (Active Electronically Scanned Array) radar to replace mechanical-scanned array radar (ECR-90 Captor). Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) also installed on Tranche 3.


Eurofighter uses 2 x Eurojet EJ200 turbofans jet engine(90kN each engine) manufactured by AEROJET Consortium (Avio Italy, ITP Spain, MTU Aero Engine Germany & Rolls Royce UK). The engine features digital control, wide chord aerofoils and single crystal turbine blades, a covergent / divergent exhaust nozzle and integrated health monitoring. It has Supercruise capability where it can fly at speed of over Mach 1 without using afterburning. This performance will able Eurofighter to avoid / reduce heat seeker missile & save fuel consumption.


Typhoon armaments include pre-installed 27mm Maser cannon (remove from UK Typhoon). For Air-Air mode weapon, Raytheon AIM-9 Sidewinder (Advance Short Range Air-Air Missile up to AIM-9M) for short range. IRIS-T (Diehl Germany) and AIM-120 AMRAAM (Advance Medium Range Air-Air Missile) use for medium range. MBDA Meteor long range missile still on progress to integrated with Eurofighter Typhoon.

For precision strike, Raytheon UK Paveway IV dual (laser / GPS) guided bomb (500 lbs) & Raytheon EGBU-16/GBU-49 Enhanced Paveway dual laser/GPS guided (500 lbs) still on test for latest Typhoon. In long range Air-Ground Missile,MBDA Storm Shadow, KEPD Taurus 350 Stand-Off Cruise missile / SCALP EG for land attack.
Germany Typhoon will use PILUM & HOSBO medium range glide bombs with 100-160km range using GPS/INS guidance. MBDA UK Brimstone short range light strike missiles for UK Typhoon.
Raytheon AGM-88 HARM anti-radar missiles use for anti-radiation.


RAFAEL LITENING III Surveillance & Targeting pods use for surveillance and targeting sensor. RAFAEL REECELITE reconnaissance pod use for reconnaissance duty.
Thales Damocles surveillance & targeting pod were request by Saudi Arabian Air Force for their Typhoon.


For targeting & locating system, Typhoon use PIRATE (Passive Infrared Airborne Track Equipment). When use with radar in Air-Air role, it functions as an Infrared Search & Track System (IRST) providing passive target detection & tracking.In Air-Surface role, it can performs multiple target acquisiton & identification and provides navigation and landing. PIRATE also can link to Helmet Mounted Display (HMD).

Defensive Aid Sub-System (DASS) installed within aircraft structure and integrated with avionics system act as countermeasure. It provides an all-round prioritised assessment of threat with fully automatic response to a single or multiple threats.
DASS includes Electronics Countermeasures / Support Measure (ECM/ESM), front & rear missile approach warners, towed decoy systems, laser warning receivers & chaff & flare dispensing system. The avionics system based on NATO Standard databus with fibre optic highways.
For Tranche 3A, it will accommodated with Praetorian DASS defensive system that will incorporate ECM/ESM and Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS).


UK Eurofighter currently successfully integrate and test Meteor Long Range BVR missile with new E-SCAN AESA radar. Praetorian DASS defensive suite still on test. Praetorian DASS integrated Missile Approach Warning System ((MAWS) tied into array of defensive sub-system - chaff & flare, tower decoy, ESM to find hostile radar, ECM to confuse enemy radar detection. BAE Helmet-Mounted Symbology System (HMS) and Head Up Display show flight reference, weapon aiming & cueing & FLIR image.


UK, Germany, Italy and Spain are main user of Typhoon. Since it failed bidding for 126 M-MRCA, EADS through it's partner like BAE System try to market Eurofighter Typhoon to the country like Oman, UAE, South Korea, Malaysia and other countries.
Austria become the first export customer for Typhoon. It lease 15 Eurofighter to Austrian Air Force. Saudi Arabia become the second export customer through Project Salaam in 2007. First 24 Typhoon Tranche 2 came in fly-in condition. Another 48 aircraft Tranche 3 will be install in Saudi.

                                         Typhoon with wide array of weapons/missile & pods