Sunday, October 28, 2012

SSK Scorpene Diesel Electric Submarine (DCNS France)

SSK Scorpene Diesel-Electric Submerine for Royal Malaysian Navy was designed in Perdana Class Submarine, based on Malaysian configuration. Scorpene submarines for RMN was jointly developed by DCNS (France) & Navantia (Spain). The first Scorpene, KD Tunku Abdul Rahman were built in Cherbourg Shipyard, France (DCNS). Second submarine, KD Tun Razak built in Cartagena Shipyard, Spain by Navantia.
Stern sections were built by Navantia, bow sections was built by DCNS.
Chile ordered the first Scorpene Submarine, O'Higgins Class (based on Chile configuration) and received it in 2005 and the second Submarine, Carerra in 2008.
The Scorpene submarine for Chile & Malaysia are in the same variant, CM-2000 (basic version without AIP).

Scorpene submarine can perform anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-surface warfare (ASuW), reconnaissance and intelligence, mine laying and special operation mission.   

Scorpene Diesel-Electric submarine designed using latest technologies from French nuclear-power classes submarine particuarly on acoustic discretion & combat system performance. Scorpene submarine designed in two configuration, CM-2000 basic version without AIP & AM-2000 version with MESMA AIP. It can category as medium-size submarines using state-of-the-art technology in submarine design & construction.
Excellent endurance become one of the few medium-size submarine designed suitable for extended ocean patrol duties. It's modular design can fulfill customer requirements.
Submariners from Royal Malaysian Navy have been training in the naval training centre of DCI/NAVFCO France since 2005.

Main Features:

Submarine length is 66.4m with 6.2m wide beam and draft of 5.4m. Pressure hull diameter of 6.2m, surface displacement of 1,670 tonnes.
The max speed of Scorpene is 20 knots during submerged & 12 knots during surface. It can accommodate 31 crews and can do a mission for 45 days.
Its maximum diving is 300m deep.

Combat Management System, Weapons & Protection System

Scorpene fixed with SUBTICS Combat Management System using 6 multi-function common consoles and centrally situated tactical table.

Scorpene submarine was fitted 6 (533mm) units torpedo tubes (bow located) that can launch Black Shark heavyweight torpedo, F17 & Mk48 torpedoes. It also can launch Exocet SM-39 anti-surface missiles. It can store 18 torpedoes / missiles at one time. The submarine also installed with infrared radiation detector & active / passive sonar detection. Sonar suite includes long-range passive cylindrical array, an intercept sonar, active sonar, distributed array, flank array, high resolution sonar for mine detection and obstacle avoidance and towed array.


Scorpene submarine can upgrade for Air Independent Propulsion (AIP). MESMA anaerobic system AIP will improve Scorpene ability to operate under water for sustained periods without having to surface. But its still not the same league as nuclear submarine which can submerged indefinitely. This improvement will reduces 'indiscretion time' on the surface where the sub can be spotted by radar & easily detect by underwater sensors.
CM-2000 Scorpene (without AIP) can operate underwater for 4-6 days without surfacing / snorkeling for oxygen to recharge it's batteries.
AM-2000 Scorpene (with AIP) able to operate up to 18 days, depending on variables like speed etc. India and Brazil Scorpene ordered AIP version of Scorpene.
MESMA AIP approach is closely closed-cycle steam turbine derivative of French nuclear-propulsion experience using non-nuclear steam generation. A conventional cycle turbine alternator is powered by steam generated from the combustion of ethanol & stored oxygen at pressure of 60 atmospheres. The pressure-firing allows exhaust CO2 to be expelled overboard at any depth without exhaust compressor.

For MESMA AIP installation, 8.3m AIP compartment needed for additional & 305 tonnes hull section weight additional for existing Scorpene.

Others AIP systems includes Kockums Sterling-cycle AIP fitted on Gotland class & Sodermanland class submarine. Republic of Singapore Navy acquired ex-Sweden Gotland class submarines fitted with Sterling AIP. HDW Siemens use PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) for U-209, U-212 & U-214 Class AIP's version. Consortium Thyssen Nordseewerke "Spectre" CCD (closed-cycle-diesel) system that uses liquid oxygen, diesel fuel & argon gas for RDM submarines with AIP.

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

Sukhoi SU-32/34 Fullback Fighter/Bomber

Sukhoi SU-32/34 frontline fighter-bomber is designed based on the platform of dual-seat Sukhoi SU-27UB. It was designed by Sukhoi and manufactured by Novosibirk Aircraft Production Association (NAPO). It's dual-seat configuration is side-by-side cockpit configuration including pilot rest room & toilet.

SU-34 can deliver high precision strike on heavily defended air, ground & naval targets (including small & mobile targets) on solo & group missions in any weather conditions, day or night & reconnaissance task. It can category in 4th Generation fighter-bomber aircraft by it's combat capabilities.
Active security system and modern computers allow the pilot / commander & navigator / operator of weapons to deliver precision strikes on targets & make maneuvers under hostile fire situation.

Main Distinctive Features of SU-34:

  • Large ordnance load & a broad line-up of guided air-launched weapons.
  • High load capabilities due to it designed of reinforced the frame & landing gear and increase fuel tank.
  • Effective digitally controlled twin afterburning turbojet engines.
  • In-flight re-fueling capability.
  • Advanced avionics line-up including multi-purpose PAA radar, on-board optical search & track station & integrated defensive aid suite.
  • It can engage long range combat missions close to ranges of medium strategic bombers.

Development / Early Designed of SU-32/34 Fighter/Bomber

Production of 2-seat fighter-bomber version of SU-27 officially begin in 1986. New fighter-bomber was manufactured known as T-10V. It design is side-by-side pilot seating. The first prototype known as T-10V-1 is built on the platform of SU-27UB.First test flight of T-10V-1 was in 1990 by Sukhoi Design Bureau test pilot. The first pre-production of T-10V is built & makes it's first test flight. It was reportedly adopted the SU-35 wing with additional stations, enlarged intenal fuel tanks for longer range, enlarged spine & lengthened tail straight.

It was later renamed SU-32. It first time shown abroad was at 1995 Paris Airshow. In June 2008, Sukhoi started full-scale production of SU-34 Fullback Fighter-Bomber.

Combat Characteristic of SU-34 Fullback fighter-bomber:

  • Long range attack / bomber mission 
  • Ability to re-fuel in the air and can act as buddy-buddy tanker with additional tank under wings
  • Comfortable cabin with rest room & toilet.
SU-34 Fullback was envisaged succescor of SU-24 Fencer (F-111 analogue version of Russian). It's mission is to deliver sufficiently large ordnance load to pre-determined area, hit the target accurately and take evasive action again pursuing enemy fighter aircrafts. It also able to handle enemy fighters in combat if require. It can match up well against any American teen fighters (F-16 C/D, F/A-18 Hornet/Super Hornet, F-15E).

Main Characteristic of SU-32/34 Fullback:

  • 45.1 tonnes maximum take-off weight
  • 8 tonne ordnance load on 10 hardpoints (can accommodate precision guided weapons; air-air missiles like R-73/AA-11 Archer / R-77 (AA-12 Adder "Amraamski"
  • Armed with a 30mm Gsh-301 gun & 180 rounds 
  • Powered by AL-31FM1 engines built by Salyut Company which can generate thrust up to 13.5 metric tonnes (over 29,000 lbs) and have 1,000 hours service life in between repairs. More powerful AL-41 engines may fit in future
  • It maximum speed of mach 1.8 at altitude
  • Maximum range of 3,000km with standard drop tanks. It maximum range can extend to over 4,000km with additional drop tanks. Fitted with in-flight re-fueling probe for mid-air refueling. Typical gound attack flight operation will shorter the range around 600km on internal fuel & 1,500km with external fuel tanks
  • Can fly in TERCOM (Terrain Contour Matching) modes for low-level flight & relies on software to execute other difficult maneuvers. It front horizontal empennage behind the cockpit designed to handle air pockets found in low altitude high speed flight
  • A 17mm armoured cockpit for pilot & co-pilot protection
  • 2 parallel K-36DM ejector seats that can be activated at any speed & altitude
  • Fitted with Leninets B004 phased array multi-mode X-band radar that can interleaves terrain- following radar and other modes similar to AN/APQ-164 phased array radar for B-1B Stealth bomber. It can detect at a range of 200-250km against large surface target; ground mapping capability of 75-150km & GMTI moving target tracking of 30km. Detection performance against fighter sized aerial targets are 90km.
Jamming variant of SU-32/34 Fullback with L175V/KS418 high power jamming pod still in developement progress.

Monday, October 15, 2012


HAWK 100

Hawk 100 aircraft original design is as a trainer jet with weapon training capability. Hawk 100 jet trainer also can be used as light attack aircraft.
During early staged of design, BAE System developed experimental project known as EGA (Enhanced Ground Attack) Hawk that feature avionics & weapons integrated based on F-16 Falcon. EGA Hawk design later known as Hawk 100.

Main features of Hawk 100 is:

  • Twin-seat version
  • More powerful new engine Rolls Royce Adour 871 jet engine
  • Extended 'chisel' nose to accommodate laser range finder (Ferranti) & FLIR imager (Marconi)
  • Avionics & Electronic Warfare System (EWS) - Radar Warning Receivier (RWR), chaff & flare dispenser, advance navigation && attack system (radar altimeter & low level strike capability, databus - MIL-STD-155 3B). RWR will integrate with chaff & flared dispenser in manual & auto mode as protection suite.
  • New cockpit design (Multi-Function Display MFD), Head-up Display (HUD), HOTAS controls & night vision goggles.
  • 6 external hard points (2 wingtips sidewinder launch rails, 4 wing pylons). The wing pylons can fix with twin store rack. Total weapon load for Hawk 100 is 3,000kg including 9 250kg bombs.
  • Wide range of weapons / munitions like Air-Air Missiles (AIM-9 ASRAAM / Medium range AIM-120 AMRAAM @ Skyflash); Air-Ground / Surface Missiles (Maverick); Anti-ship missiles (Sea Eagle); Sting Ray (Marconi) Homing torpedo; Paveway II guided bomb etc.
  • Taller vertical tail plane.

HAWK 200

Hawk 100 demonstrator flew for the first time in 1987. It design much more as light fighter jet & trainer. BAE System than considering a new light fighter aircraft based on Hawk 100. The new aircraft later known as Hawk 200 light attack aircraft.
The first Hawk 200 demonstrator flew for the first time in 1986 (earlier than Hawk 100). The Hawk 200 demonstrator lost due to accident / crash during demonstration a few months later.

Hawk 200 used Rolls Royce Adour 871 jet engine, combat wing & other kits / cockpit layout similar to Hawk 100. It was designed for single-seat configuration which saw new fuselage from cockpit on-ward. I can fix with in-flight refueling probe for in-flight refueling (HAWK 200 for RMAF fixed with re-fueling probe).

Northop Grumman APG-66H pulse-doppler X-band multimode radar with 10 air-air modes & 10 air-surface modes based on APG-66 use in F-16 A/B.
30mm Aden cannon was built into the nose of Hawk 200.

Hawk 200 range without drop tanks is 2,428 km. If fitted with 3 drop tanks (864 litre) it ferry range is 3610 km. It combat radius is 1,234 km. It can be fix with reconnaissance pod.


Hawk LIFT design was based on Hawk 127 AJT for Australia. Hawk 127 AJT is advance variant of Hawk 100 jet trainer. It features cockpit that compatible with F/A-18 Hornet.
Hawk LIFT designed to provide training for new generation combat aircraft like Eurofighter Typhoon, JAS-39 Gripen etc. that features an improved cockpit & avionics. The cockpit design included 3 unit colour flat-panel MFD, HOTAS controls & HUD.

Cockpit design is modular to suite with customer requirements. It also features a GPS/INS navigation system, new APU (AlliedSignal), an airframe Health & Usage Monitoring System (HUMS), two mission computers & an optional in-flight re-fueling probe.

New Rolls Royce Adour 900 could be fitted with Hawk LIFT. Adour 900 designed has same thrust capacity with Adour 871 with additional FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) & improve engine lifetime by twice. South Africa become the first export customer for Hawk LIFT.


UAE is the first customer for the new Hawk 100's & 200's. In 1990 UAE ordered 18 Hawk 102's with delivery in 1993. Oman placing an order of 4 Hawk 103's & 12 Hawk 203's which delivered in 1993.

Malaysia ordered 10 Hawk 108's & 18 Hawk 208's in late 1990. The aircraft delivered from 1993 till 1995. Hawk208's were the first Hawk 200's series sold with in-flight re-fueling probe.

In 1993 Indonesia ordered 8 Hawk 109's & 16 Hawk 209's with an option for 16 more Hwak 209's which was exercised later. All Hawk 109's & 209's jet complete delivered by 1998.

In 1993, Australia choosed Hawk 127 for their advance jet trainer (AJT). Australia ordered 33 Hawk 127's. First 12 units delivered in flying condition from UK. The rest assembled in Australia. Deliveries completed in 2001 & 2002. During tender competition, Hawk 127 out-bid McDonnel Douglas T-45 Goshawk.

In 2004, India order 66 Hawk 115 (AJT).

                                                                        HAWK 200

Friday, October 5, 2012

Rafale Multi-role Combat Aircraft / Omnirole

Dassault Rafale Multi Role Combat Aircraft / Omnirole fighter is developed & manufactured by Dassault Aviation with Safran (engines) & Thales (avionics / sensors). Rafale program began in 1985 after French break away from multinational consortium for new European fighter aircraft project later known as Eurofighter. French intended for a lighter aircraft suitable for naval use. French finally opted for expensive but independent choices named Rafale. Rafale is on the process to become fully omnirole and for global export currently. Initial version of Rafale not fully multirole due to lack of capabilities in ground & ship attack.
Main rivals for global fighter export markets is EurofighterTyphoon (EADS), Sukhoi SU-30 family, F-15E & F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet (Boeing), F-16 C/D Block 50 @ F-16E/F Block 60 (Lockheed Martin), JAS-39 E/F Gripen (SAAB), F-35 Lightning II (Lockheed Martin) & MiG-35.

Rafale Variant

Rafale is powered by Safran M-88 twin jet engines that can generating up to 16,500 pound of thrust with afterburner for each engine.Canard was installed to improved maneuverability & to reduce radar detection. This aircraft pre-installed with 30mm GIAT DEFA 719B gun. It has 14 hardpoints that can carry weapons, missiles, tanks, pods etc up to 10 tonnes. For early version Rafale (F1 & F2) Thales RBE-2 mechanically-scanned array radar was installed. The radar can link with MBDA MICA RF missiles & Meteor long-range BVR missiles (on progress). Optronics Infrared Search & Track system (Thales / Sagem OSF) can integrate with MBDA MICA IR medium range Air-Air missile in passive attack.

Rafale production / design divided into several capabilities / series or better known as tranche. Rafale M are single-seat fighter for maritime / naval version. This version was added with strengthened landing gear, re-inforced / improved airframe & hook arrester for ship landing purpose.
For Air Force, twin-seat Rafale B & single-seat Rafale C was designed / produced. All Rafale models (B, C & M) divided into Tranche improvements. Early models of Rafale category as F1. It features mainly for air superiority (air-air) missions. Early model of Rafale, Rafale M included in this category. Latest variant of Rafale M, Rafale B (2-seat) & Rafale C (single-seat) was built in F2 standard. F2 standard has capability to carry Precision Guided Munition plus air superiority capabilities. F2 improvements included radar integrated ground attack & terrain following modes, can carry laser guided bombs (smart bomb), cruise missile, passive guided missile using IRST, link 16 datalink, tanker role etc.

Fully capable F3 standard version will adds precision ground attack, integration with RECO NG reconnaissance pod & Thales Damocles surveillance & targeting pods, RBE2-AA AESA radar, integrated with anti-ship missile (Exocet AM39). It can carry ASMP/A air-launch stand-off nuclear missile. Integration with MBDA Meteor long-range air-ar missile (BVR) still on test/progress.


Rafale multi-role fighter aircraft can operate on widely range of mission:

1. Air defense / air superiority
2. Close air support
3. Ground surface attack (laser guided bombs, stand-off precision weapons/cruise missiles)
4. Anti-ship
5. Nuclear Strike mission
6. Reconnaissance
7. Tanker role capability for buddy refueling


HOTAS system used to control the aircraft. For aircraft control data, mission data & firing cues, the cockpit was equipped with HUD, wide-angle display (Thales Avionique).

Multi-image HUD show tactical situation & sensor data and two touch-screen displays will display aircraft system parameters and mission data.
Pilot will equip with HMS & display. Camera & on-board recorder will record image of HUD during a mission.


Range of weapons for Rafale includes:

Air-Air missiles - MBDA MICA RF/IR, Magic, ASRAAM, AMRAAM, MBDA Meteor long-range missile
Air-Ground missiles - Apache, AS-30, HARM, Maverick, Storm Shadow, SCALP-EG
Guided bombs - GBU-49 Enhanced Paveway II, Sagem AASM GPS/INS precision guided bomb (six can
                         carry at one time)
Anti-ship missile - Exocet AM-39, Penguin 3 & Harpoon missiles
Strategic mission (nuclear) - MBDA ASMP-A stand-off nuclear missile (French only)


Thales Spectra was Rafale electronic warfare system. It integrated transmitter, radar warner, laser warning receiver, missile warning, detection system and jammers.

Optronic system is Thales/SAGEM OSF IRST for search, target identification, telemetry and automatic target designation & tracking.


Rafale was picked in India MRCA program outperform Eurofighter Typhoon. Dassault also active in offering Rafale for Brazil FX-fighter program, Kuwait AF, Malaysia, Oman, Qatar, UAE and others country.

Rafale lost for export competition in Algeria (SU-30MKA), Greece (F-16 C/D), Morocco (F-16C/D), Netherlands (F-35A), Norway (F-35A), Saudi Arabia (Eurofighter), Singapore (F-15SG), South Korea (F-15K), Switzerland (JAS-39E/F Gripen) & UAE (F-16E/F).