Wednesday, November 21, 2012

PT-91 Twardy Main Battle Tank

PT-91 M Pendekar

PT-91 Twardy MBT is a derivation of T-72 main battle tank that's going for modernisation, replacing & upgrading of its's systems. It's derived form T-72 M1 MBT, where later upgrading works with dual-axis stabilised Fire Control System (FCS), ERA protection, more powerful & efficient engine & gun auto loader.
This upgraded version known as T-72 M1Z MBT. The newly upgraded T-72 M1Z gave highly reliable system by having superior fire power, improved crew protection & impressive mobility.

Obrum responsible for design, R&D & upgrading works of T-72 MBT to PT-91 Twardy. Bumar Labedy manufactured PT-91 Twardy.

In 1996, US government try to get Poland in helping for 'Train & Equip' program to equipped Bosnia - Croatia army. Bumar Labedy start manufactured PT-91 since 1993.
In 2002, Malaysia decided to buy 48 modernized PT-91 M Twardy for US $380 million which later known as PT-91 Pendekar MBT (Malaysia specification).

Early model of PT-91 Twardy equipped with 850 HP turbocharged diesel engine for high power & speed. It can reach maximum road speed of 60 km/hr. For low speed maneuvering, low gear provides speed up to 7 km/hr. PT-91 MBT can fording water obstacle up to 5 m depth.

PT-91 MBT equipped with Fire Control System (FCS), where it consist in gunner station. It's use TPDK-1 sight for day & PCN-A (channel passive) sight of Thermal Imaging Sight for night mission capability. Both gunner & commander equipped with day & night vision capability.
Gunner station consists 2-axis stabilized platform with Thermal Imaging Sight & day light visual imaging sub-system, laser range-finder to detect, identify, acquire & track target during day & night missions / conditions.

It's 2-axis stabilized head mirror with 360 degree view allow the crews to acquire target rapidly & destroy multiple targets. The digital computer provides solution for 6 types of ammunition which information generated through up-to-date set on sensors or input from commander.

The crew protection suite was improved using very effective ERA (Explosive Reactive Armor) protection, which offer better protection against chemical energy projectiles.
Automatic fire suppression system will automatically detect any fire inside compartment & using Halon 1301 to suppress fire. For engine compartment, it use Halon 1211 to suppress fire inside the engine.

Laser warning system provides information for laser beams of sights range-finder & missile guiding system & react automatically by firing smoke grenades from two of 6 launcher banks.


Crew            : 3
Main Gun     : 125mm 2A46 Smooth-bore gun with 42 rounds (APFSDS / HEAT / HE / WP ammunition)
Gunner sight range : 200 m - 1000 m for day light & Thermal Imaging System for night sight
Computer system  : 16 bit digital computer
Sensors                : Infra-red sensor detection, temperature sensing fire wire, fire wire extinguishing medium

PT-91 Twardy Variants

1. PT-91A Twardy
An advance version of PT-91. It's power by S-1000 engine (1,000 HP). Manufactured for demonstration.

2. PT-91Z Hardy
An improved version of PT-91A Twardy which was equipped with advance SAVAN-15 Fire Control System

3. PT-91M Pendekar
An export variant for Malaysia which equipped with enhanced 125 mm smooth-bore gun, S-1000 engine (1,000 HP) French Fire Control System, communication system & hydro-pneumatic transmission.

4. PT-91 E/Ex
An export variant to different countries

5. PT-91P
An advanced variant of PT-91 E/Ex. It's manufactured for demonstration only.

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